by Roger Abrantes

Course Description

Evolution is the process of change in all forms of life over generations; evolutionary biology is the study of how evolution occurs. Behavior is as a tool in the struggle for survival and reproduction. Charles Darwin in his ‘The Origin Of Species By Means Of Natural Selection’ (1859) was the first who formulated the hypothesis that species evolved as a result of the struggle for life, i.e. as a result of natural selection, where the fittest had an advantage.

Course Level

Beginner. This course is an introduction to evolution and essential to the understanding of behavior, its development, and evolution.

Course Textbook

“Evolution—An Introduction”

by Roger Abrantes, Ph.D. in Evolutionary Biology and Ethology.


For this course, you’ll get the text of the book especially edited as four lessons, each with a quiz.


Course content and structure


Lesson One:

  1. Evolution; history of the theory of evolution; the theory of Evolution by natural selection.
  2. Variation; adaptation.
  3. Sexual selection.

Lesson Two:

  1. The algorithm of natural selection; evolution has no goal.
  2. The evolution of the eye.
  3. Phyletic gradualism and punctuated equilibrium.

Lesson Three:

  1. Life.
  2. Animals and taxonomy.
  3. The origin of life.

Lesson Four:

  1. Species and speciation. Darwin on species and speciation.
  2. The evolution of humans.
  3. Natural selection.

Supplementary Literature

Although not mandatory, we recommend that you supplement your readings with:

Online Studying and Tutoring

Watch the movie(s) and read the book(s). Join the course forum where you can read our tutors’ answers to questions previously posed by your colleagues. If you have a new question, do not hesitate in posting it.

The course forum is solely for academic questions. For administrative matters or difficulties accessing the functionality of the site, please submit a ticket.

Once you’re ready for it, take the quizzes. You may take a quiz as many times as you like. We recommend you re-take quizzes once a year as a self-imposed quality control.

Roger Abrantes

Ph.D. in Evolutionary Biology and Ethology, BA in Philosophy. Author to 27 books, speaks seven languages. Retired in 2016, lectured on Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, and Epistemology. Currently writing articles and blogs and occasionally sailing and diving in Thailand.

View all articles by Roger Abrantes

Ethology Institute